Engraving. 190 x 130mm (7½ x 5¼"). Crease top left.
Mahmud II (1789-1839), 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1808. During his reign the loss of the Battle of Navarino (1827) led to his recognition of the independence of Greece, and the French occupied Algeria. He realised that the Empire needed reforming and succeeded in the abolition of the Janissary corps. He also introduced the Fez as part of clothing reforms (this portrait shows him in the old style) and acquired the navy's first steam ships after Navarino.
[Ref: 29875] £40.00